Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (2022)

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Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (1)

Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (2)

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    How NATO will change when Finland and Sweden join the alliance

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04:01

(CNN)Sweden and Finland are set formally to end decades of neutrality and join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in a historic breakthrough for the alliance that deals a blow to Russian President Vladimir Putin.

The last major hurdle to the two nations' entry to the bloc was removed when Turkey dropped its opposition on Tuesday.

That breakthrough came during a NATO summit in Madrid that has already become one of the most consequential meetings in the history of the military alliance.

    The two countries are now expected to become full NATO members quickly, shoring up the bloc's eastern flank within months of Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

    (Video) Why Sweden and Finland are joining NATO - and what's next

      Here's all you need to know about why the move happened, what comes next and why it matters.

        Read More

        What are the latest developments?

        Sweden and Finland both announced their intention to join NATO in May, after Russia's invasion of Ukraine caused a sudden shift in attitudes toward joining the bloc.

          That announcement was welcomed by almost all of NATO's leaders -- but there was one significant obstacle. Turkey's President, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, said he was not looking at both countries joining NATO "positively," accusing them of housing Kurdish "terrorist organizations."

          Under NATO rules, just one member state can veto a new applicant's membership.

          However, a big diplomatic breakthrough between the three countries took place at the NATO summit in Madrid on Tuesday. Turkey signed a trilateral memorandum with Finland and Sweden, lifting its opposition and officially welcoming them to join the bloc.

          "In NATO, we have always shown that whatever our differences, we can always sit down, find common ground and resolve any issues. NATO's open door policy has been an historic success," NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg told journalists in Madrid.

          On Wednesday, NATO formally invited Sweden and Finland to join, kickstarting a multistage process that will end with both countries holding full membership.

          Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (3)

          Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelensky on Wednesday addressed the Madrid NATO summit, where a key diplomatic breakthrough has paved the way for Sweden and Finland to join.

          What happens next?

          Stoltenberg said Wednesday that he expects Sweden and Finland to become members of the military alliance quickly.

          The invitation sparks a seven-step accession process. Key moments along that path include talks between NATO and the candidate countries. The candidates must formally accept the obligations of membership, and then current member states sign an Accession Protocol, before individually ratifying it back home.

          (Video) What would it mean if Finland and Sweden join Nato? - BBC News

          "We need a ratification process in 30 parliaments -- that always takes some time but I expect also that to go rather quickly because allies are ready to try to make that ratification process happen as quickly as possible," Stoltenberg explained Wednesday.

          After that, the candidate country is formally invited to accede to the Washington Treaty, the founding document of the alliance.

          NATO has an "open door" policy -- any country can be invited to join if it expresses an interest, as long as it is able and willing to uphold the principles of the bloc's founding treaty.

          The ratification process usually takes about a year, from the signing of the Accession Protocol by existing members to the country joining the Washington Treaty.

          But the war in Ukraine has added unprecedented urgency to Sweden and Finland's membership, and the timeline could be accelerated accordingly.

          How have leaders reacted?

          US President Joe Biden praised the breakthrough with Turkey, saying it sent a clear signal to Russia that NATO was united and growing.

          Sweden and Finland's "decision to move away from neutrality and the tradition of neutrality to join the NATO alliance is going to make us stronger and more secure and NATO stronger," Biden said. "We are sending an unmistakable message in my view... that NATO is strong, united, and the steps we are taking during this summit are going to further augment our collective strength."

          Biden said the two Nordic countries' accession was a sign Putin's aims had backfired.

          "Putin was looking for the Finlandization of Europe," he said, referring to the so-called Finlandization dynamic that saw Russia dominant over the foreign policy of its smaller neighbor for decades. "He's going to get the NATOization of Europe, and that is exactly what he did not want, that's exactly what needs to be done to guarantee security for Europe. And I think it's necessary," Biden said.

          The move was met with delight across the countries that make up NATO's eastern front, many of which have expressed concern that they could be next in Russia's crosshairs if it is successful in Ukraine.

          Estonian Prime Minister Kaja Kallas said the step was "significant," and Lithuanian President Gitanas Nausėda called it "wonderful news."

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          Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (5)

          Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (6)

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          17:04

          What does NATO membership entail?

          The reason most countries join NATO is because of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which stipulates that all signatories consider an attack on one member an attack against all.

          Article 5 has been a cornerstone of the alliance since it was founded in 1949 as a counterweight to the Soviet Union.

          The point of the treaty, and Article 5 specifically, was to deter the Soviets from attacking liberal democracies that lacked military strength. Article 5 guarantees that the resources of the whole alliance -- including the massive US military -- can be used to protect any single member nation, such as smaller countries that would be defenseless without their allies. Iceland, for example, has no standing army.

          Former Swedish leader Carl Bildt told CNN didn't foresee new big military bases being built in either country if they joined. He said joining the alliance would probably mean more joint military training and planning between Finland, Sweden and the 30 current members. Swedish and Finnish forces could also participate in other NATO operations around the globe, such as those in the Baltic states, where several bases have multinational troops.

          "There's going to be preparations for contingencies as part of deterring any adventures that the Russians might be thinking of," Bildt said. "The actual change is going to be fairly limited."

          Why haven't Finland and Sweden already joined NATO?

          While other Nordic countries like Norway, Denmark and Iceland were original members of the alliance, Sweden and Finland did not join the pact for historic and geopolitical reasons.

          Both Finland, which declared independence from Russia in 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution, and Sweden adopted neutral foreign policy stances during the Cold War, refusing to align with either the Soviet Union or the United States.

          Sweden's policy of neutrality goes back to the early 1800s, when the country steadfastly stayed out of European conflicts. Its King Gustav XIV formally adopted that neutral status in 1834, according to NATO, and Sweden declared a policy of "non-belligerency" during World War II -- allowing Nazi troops to pass through its land into Finland, while also accepting Jewish refugees.

          Sweden opted to maintain its neutral status after the war ended.

          Finland's neutrality has historically proved more difficult, as it shared a long border with an authoritarian superpower.

          A Finno-Soviet treaty known as the Agreement of Friendship, signed in 1948 and extended on occasion through the decades, prohibited Finland from joining any military alliance considered hostile to the USSR, or from allowing a Western attack through Finnish territory.

          To keep the peace, Finns adopted an arrangement sometimes called Finlandization, in which leaders acceded to Soviet demands from time to time. The term was coined during the Cold War and has been applied to other countries in which a superpower exerts control over smaller neighboring states.

          Both countries' balancing acts effectively ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Sweden and Finland joined the European Union together in 1995 and gradually aligned their defense policies with the West, while still avoiding joining NATO outright.

          Sweden and Finland are set to join NATO. What happens next? (7)

          Finnish infantry on skis fighting the Soviets during World War II. Following the war, Finland adopted a neutral stance that remained in place for decades.

          (Video) Finland, Sweden confirm intention to join NATO, Moscow warns of consequences | DW News

          How Russia's invasion changed everything

          Sweden and Finland have been inching toward the West on security issues since joining the EU shortly after the end of the Cold War. But Russia's invasion of Ukraine dramatically accelerated that process, pushing them to pull the trigger on NATO membership.

          If the Kremlin was willing to invade Ukraine -- a country with 44 million people, a GDP of about $155 billion, and armed forces of 200,000 active troops -- what would stop Putin from invading smaller countries like Finland or Sweden?

          "Everything changed when Russia invaded Ukraine," Finnish Prime Minister Sanna Marin said in April. "People's mindset in Finland, also in Sweden, changed and shifted very dramatically."

          Since the invasion of Ukraine in February, Finnish public support for joining NATO has leaped from around 30% to nearly 80% in some polls. The majority of Swedes also approve of their country joining the alliance, according to opinion polls there.

          How has Russia reacted?

          Russia lambasted the May decision by Finland and Sweden to seek to join the alliance. Its Deputy Foreign Minister, Sergei Ryabkov, said at the time that the move would be a "mistake" with "far-reaching consequences," according to Russian state news agency TASS.

          That followed similar threats from high-ranking Moscow officials. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said after the announcement that "NATO expansion does not make the world more stable and secure." He added that Russia's reaction would depend on "how far and how close to our borders the military infrastructure will move."

          Russia currently shares about 755 miles of land border with five NATO members, according to the alliance. Finland's accession would mean that a nation with which Russia shares an 830-mile border would become formally militarily aligned with the United States.

          The addition of Finland and Sweden would also benefit the alliance, which would frustrate Russia. Both are serious military powers, despite their small populations.

          But Putin has so far been more muted in his rhetoric than some of his officials. Last month he said that "Russia has no problems with these states," adding that the expansion of NATO "does not pose a direct threat to Russia."

          "But the expansion of military infrastructure into this territory will certainly cause our response," he added at the Collective Security Treaty Organization in Moscow. "We will see what it will be based on the threats that will be created for us."

          Why is Russia so opposed to NATO?

          Putin sees the alliance as a defense against Russia, despite the fact that it spent much of the post-Soviet era focusing on issues like terrorism and peacekeeping.

          Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.

          Ukraine's desire to join NATO, and its status as a NATO partner -- seen as a step on the way to eventual full membership -- was one of the numerous grievances Putin cited in an attempt to justify the invasion.

            Ironically, his invasion has given the alliance new purpose -- and increased its strength.

            Correction: This story has been updated to correct the GDP of Ukraine, which was $155.5 billion in 2020, according to the World Bank.

            CNN's Luke McGee, Nic Robertson, Paul LeBlanc, Per Bergfors Nyberg and Niamh Kennedy and Reuters contributed to this report.

            FAQs

            What is the status of Finland and Sweden joining NATO? ›

            President Joe Biden formally welcomed Finland and Sweden joining the NATO alliance Tuesday as he signed the instruments of ratification that delivered the U.S.'s formal backing of the Nordic nations entering the mutual defense pact, part of a reshaping of the European security posture after Russia's invasion of Ukraine ...

            Why don t Sweden and Finland belong to NATO? ›

            In 1949 Sweden chose not to join NATO and declared a security policy aiming for non-alignment in peace and neutrality in war.

            Why is Norway in NATO but not Sweden and Finland? ›

            Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and culturally similar, and all relied on neutrality to protect their sovereignty prior to the Second World War, Denmark and Norway sought protection from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) after the war while Finland and Sweden still remain ...

            What does it take for a country to join NATO? ›

            --New members must uphold democracy, including tolerating diversity. --New members must be making progress toward a market economy. --Their military forces must be under firm civilian control. --They must be good neighbors and respect sovereignty outside their borders.

            Is Finland part of NATO? ›

            Finland and Sweden completed accession talks at NATO Headquarters in Brussels on Monday (4 July 2022), as agreed last week by NATO leaders at their Summit in Madrid. Both countries formally confirmed their willingness and ability to meet the political, legal and military obligations and commitments of NATO membership.

            When did Norway leave NATO? ›

            24 August 1949

            Can Sweden join NATO? ›

            The signing of the document means Finland and Sweden will have the status as "invitees" and will participate in alliance discussions. Sweden has a world-class military and will contribute to the security of all NATO allies.

            Will Russia invade Sweden? ›

            Since Norway is a founding member of NATO, it's highly unlikely the Russians would approach from the North, so any invasion will have to come through the Baltic from the East. Sweden would protect its coastline from battleships and troop carriers with a fleet of the world's most quiet submarines.

            Why is Australia not in NATO? ›

            Why is Australia not a member of NATO? The name “NATO” makes this answer pretty easy; NATO means North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A world map reveals that, first, Australia is in the Southern Hemisphere and, second, it lies not in the Atlantic Ocean but, rather, in the Indian and Pacific oceans.

            Why did Norway leave NATO? ›

            Its refusal to host NATO bases from the very start stemmed from the delicate balancing act it had to pursue as a Western Ally with one of the biggest industrial-military power houses of the Soviet Union literally at its doorstep in the Kola Peninsula.

            Why is Ireland not in NATO? ›

            To date, Ireland has not sought to join as a full NATO member due to its traditional policy of military neutrality.

            Can a nation be kicked out of NATO? ›

            The formal process is stated in article XIII of the Treaty. This says that any country that wants to leave must send the United States (as the depositary) a "notice of denunciation", which the U.S. would then pass on to the other countries in the alliance.

            What are the benefits of being in NATO? ›

            Troops and Equipment.

            NATO benefits from being able to draw on the military expertise and capabilities of its members. This includes tanks, submarines or fighter jets. When the Alliance collectively decides to conduct an operation it asks Allies for troops and equipment to be placed under NATO command.

            Does Japan want to join NATO? ›

            Japan intends to upgrade its partnership with NATO significantly after Russia's war against Ukraine as the security of Europe is inseparable from that of Asia, Prime Minister Fumio Kishida said Wednesday, hailing the Western alliance's engagement in the Indo-Pacific region.

            How strong is Finland's military? ›

            The number of active military personnel in the Finnish Defence Forces is a modest 23,000, but the country boasts a wartime strength of 280,000 because of its massive conscription system.
            ...
            Breakdown of Sweden and Finland militaries, 2022.
            🇸🇪 Sweden🇫🇮 Finland
            Overall military strength#25 of 142#53 of 142
            8 more rows
            May 19, 2022

            Why did Russia invade Finland? ›

            Finland believed the Soviet Union wanted to expand into its territory and the Soviet Union feared Finland would allow itself to be used as a base from which enemies could attack. Finland declared itself neutral at the start of the Second World War, but the Soviet Union demanded concessions.

            What can Finland contribute to NATO? ›

            Finland provides personnel to the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Kosovo (KFOR). Finland also participates in NATO Mission Iraq (NMI), NATO's advisory and capacity-building mission in Iraq. Finland participated in the enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) in a supplementary role and subject to national decisions.

            What happens if two NATO countries go to war? ›

            For example, if Turkey invaded islands belonging to Greece and sparked a war, they would be considered the aggressor. NATO is not an offensive alliance. In this case, hypothetically, the rest of NATO would come to the defense of Greece against Turkey.

            Is Japan in NATO? ›

            Australia, Japan and South Korea are all U.S. security allies. Australia and New Zealand are part of the “Five Eyes” intelligence-sharing alliance that also involves Britain, Canada and the United States, while Japan and Australia are members of the “Quad” group along with the United States and India.

            What country left NATO? ›

            In the event of its partners refusing, France, which wished to retain absolute control of its armed forces, reserved the right to withdraw from NATO. Indeed, de Gaulle drew no distinction between NATO and Europe.

            Is Norway a NATO member? ›

            While Norway has been a NATO member since the military alliance's founding in 1949, its nearby neighbors, Finland and Sweden, had long preferred to stay unaligned.

            Why Ukraine is not in NATO? ›

            Plans for NATO membership were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych, who preferred to keep the country non-aligned, was elected President.

            Is Iceland in NATO? ›

            Iceland has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since its foundation in 1949. Membership of the Alliance and the 1951 bilateral Defence Agreement with the United States of America remain the two main pillars of Iceland's security policy.

            Why is Ireland not in NATO? ›

            To date, Ireland has not sought to join as a full NATO member due to its traditional policy of military neutrality.

            Will Russia invade Sweden? ›

            Since Norway is a founding member of NATO, it's highly unlikely the Russians would approach from the North, so any invasion will have to come through the Baltic from the East. Sweden would protect its coastline from battleships and troop carriers with a fleet of the world's most quiet submarines.

            Is Sweden a part of NATO? ›

            Sweden first contributed to a NATO-led operation in 1995 when it sent a battalion to the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sweden has supported the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Kosovo (KFOR) since 1999.

            Why is Austria not in NATO? ›

            Austria is bound to neutrality by the 1955 Austrian State Treaty and its constitution, which prohibits entry into military alliances and the establishment of foreign military bases on Austrian territory.

            Sweden and Finland are set formally to end decades of neutrality and join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in a historic breakthrough for the alliance that deals a blow to Russian President Vladimir Putin.

            Sweden and Finland both announced their intention to join NATO in May, after Russia's invasion of Ukraine caused a sudden shift in attitudes toward joining the bloc.. On Wednesday, NATO formally invited Sweden and Finland to join, kickstarting a multistage process that will end with both countries holding full membership.. US President Joe Biden praised the breakthrough with Turkey, saying it sent a clear signal to Russia that NATO was united and growing.. Sweden and Finland's "decision to move away from neutrality and the tradition of neutrality to join the NATO alliance is going to make us stronger and more secure and NATO stronger," Biden said.. Both Finland, which declared independence from Russia in 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution, and Sweden adopted neutral foreign policy stances during the Cold War, refusing to align with either the Soviet Union or the United States.. Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.

            Finland and Sweden are poised to end decades of neutrality by joining NATO, a dramatic evolution in European security and geopolitics sparked by Russia's invasion of Ukraine. Here's what you need to know about how it works and what comes next.

            "Everything has changed when Russia attacked Ukraine.. Joining NATO is "an act of peace [so] that there will never again be war in Finland in the future," Marin said.. While other Nordic countries like Norway, Denmark and Iceland were original members of the alliance, Sweden and Finland did not join the pact for historic and geopolitical reasons.. Both Finland, which declared independence from Russia in 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution, and Sweden adopted neutral foreign policy stances during the Cold War, refusing to align with the Soviet Union or the United States.. "Our NATO membership was decided on the 24th of February, at 5 o'clock in the morning, when Putin and Russia attacked Ukraine" former Finnish leader Stubb told CNN.. "Finland and Sweden would not have joined without this attack.". Russia currently shares about 755 miles of land border with five NATO members, according to the alliance.. Stubb and Bildt said they believe Moscow ultimately sees the two countries as reliable neighbors, despite their decision to join a Washington-backed alliance.. Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.

            That breakthrough came during a NATO summit in Madrid that has already become one of the most consequential meetings in the history of the military alliance.

            Sweden and Finland both announced their intention to join NATO in May, after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine caused a sudden shift in attitudes toward joining the bloc.. On Wednesday, NATO formally invited Sweden and Finland to join, kickstarting a multistage process that will end with both countries holding full membership.. Sweden and Finland’s “decision to move away from neutrality and the tradition of neutrality to join the NATO alliance is going to make us stronger and more secure and NATO stronger,” Biden said.. The reason most countries join NATO is because of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, which stipulates that all signatories consider an attack on one member an attack against all.. He said joining the alliance would probably mean more joint military training and planning between Finland, Sweden and the 30 current members.. While other Nordic countries like Norway, Denmark and Iceland were original members of the alliance, Sweden and Finland did not join the pact for historic and geopolitical reasons.. Both Finland, which declared independence from Russia in 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution, and Sweden adopted neutral foreign policy stances during the Cold War, refusing to align with either the Soviet Union or the United States.. Its King Gustav XIV formally adopted that neutral status in 1834, according to NATO, and Sweden declared a policy of “non-belligerency” during World War II — allowing Nazi troops to pass through its land into Finland, while also accepting Jewish refugees.. Sweden and Finland joined the European Union together in 1995 and gradually aligned their defense policies with the West, while still avoiding joining NATO outright.. If the Kremlin was willing to invade Ukraine — a country with 44 million people, a GDP of about $516 million, and armed forces of 200,000 active troops — what would stop Putin from invading smaller countries like Finland or Sweden?. Russia lambasted the May decision by Finland and Sweden to seek to join the alliance.. Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.. Ukraine’s desire to join NATO, and its status as a NATO partner — seen as a step on the way to eventual full membership — was one of the numerous grievances Putin cited in an attempt to justify the invasion.. The two countries are now expected to become full NATO members quickly, shoring up the bloc’s eastern flank within months of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

            By Rob Picheta and Joshua Berlinger, CNN Sweden and Finland are set formally to end decades of neutrality and join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in a historic breakthrough for the alliance that deals a blow to Russian President Vladimir Putin. The last major hurdle to the two nations’ entry to the bloc was

            Sweden and Finland both announced their intention to join NATO in May, after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine caused a sudden shift in attitudes toward joining the bloc.. On Wednesday, NATO formally invited Sweden and Finland to join, kickstarting a multistage process that will end with both countries holding full membership.. Sweden and Finland’s “decision to move away from neutrality and the tradition of neutrality to join the NATO alliance is going to make us stronger and more secure and NATO stronger,” Biden said.. Sweden and Finland joined the European Union together in 1995 and gradually aligned their defense policies with the West, while still avoiding joining NATO outright.. Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.

            By Rob Picheta and Joshua Berlinger, CNN Sweden and Finland are set formally to end decades of neutrality and join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in a historic breakthrough for the alliance that deals a blow to Russian President Vladimir Putin. The last major hurdle to the two nations’ entry to the bloc was

            Sweden and Finland both announced their intention to join NATO in May, after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine caused a sudden shift in attitudes toward joining the bloc.. On Wednesday, NATO formally invited Sweden and Finland to join, kickstarting a multistage process that will end with both countries holding full membership.. Stoltenberg said Wednesday that he expects Sweden and Finland to become members of the military alliance quickly.. US President Joe Biden praised the breakthrough with Turkey, saying it sent a clear signal to Russia that NATO was united and growing.. Sweden and Finland’s “decision to move away from neutrality and the tradition of neutrality to join the NATO alliance is going to make us stronger and more secure and NATO stronger,” Biden said.. Article 5 guarantees that the resources of the whole alliance — including the massive US military — can be used to protect any single member nation, such as smaller countries that would be defenseless without their allies.. Both Finland, which declared independence from Russia in 1917 after the Bolshevik revolution, and Sweden adopted neutral foreign policy stances during the Cold War, refusing to align with either the Soviet Union or the United States.. If the Kremlin was willing to invade Ukraine — a country with 44 million people, a GDP of about$155 billion, and armed forces of 200,000 active troops — what would stop Putin from invading smaller countries like Finland or Sweden?. Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.

            Sweden and Finland are both historically neutral countries. Though both are members of the European Union, they are decidedly not members of NATO. But that may soon change. In the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Finland and Sweden have signaled a desire to join the US-lead western military alliance. On the line with me to explain the significance of Sweden and Finland joining NATO is Ivo Daalder, President of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and former US Ambassador […]

            Ivo Daalder [00:08:41] So Article 10 of the NATO treaty, which was signed in 1949, provides for the possibility of other European states to be invited to join NATO if doing so would improve the security of the North Atlantic area.. Mark L. Goldberg [00:11:03] So you expect that sort of key first step, the invitation by consensus of the 30 member states be conveyed at or by the NATO summit?. I mean, of course, both Finland and Sweden need to indicate that they would welcome such an invitation.. You know, I’m sure that Russia will try.. They just don’t seem to work anymore, in part because Russia’s military capacity doesn’t appear to be as threatening as it appeared prior to the war given how badly it has fared against the Ukrainians and in part because most of the military capabilities Russians have right now, is locked down in Ukraine so that becomes a little less likely that it will be used anywhere else.. Ivo Daalder [00:16:55] No, I don’t, I think the Turks are going to understand the value of having these two countries as part of NATO.. Russia invaded Ukraine because it was not a member of NATO.. And Finland and Sweden have now got that.

            As the Russian war against Ukraine continues, NATO needs to decide what to do about Finland and Sweden’s applications to join the alliance.

            Finland and Sweden have applied to join NATO in response to Russia’s aggressions against its neighbouring countries, most recently Ukraine.. Country United KingdomUnited StatesAfghanistanÅland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of. 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Sandwich IslandsSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwan, Province of ChinaTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-lesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited States Minor Outlying. IslandsUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaViet NamVirgin Islands, BritishVirgin Islands, U.S.Wallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabwe Download free Buyer's Guide By clicking the Download Free Buyer's Guide button, you accept the terms and conditions and acknowledge that your data will be used as described in the VMS Engage – Buyer’s Guide privacy policy. By downloading this Buyer's Guide, you acknowledge that we may share your information with our white paper partners/sponsors who may contact you directly with information on their products and services.. After weeks of open discussion, in mid-May, Finland and Sweden submitted letters of application to join NATO.. Speaking through RUSI, foreign policy advisor to the National Coalition Party of Finland , Henri Vanhanen, said that whilst for many the decision of his country might have been seen as a ‘sudden change of heart regarding military alignment’, Russia’s decision to invade Ukraine ‘left Finland with no other option’.. However, should the applications by Sweden and Finland be successful, their accession will create the largest European border Russia shares with any one NATO member, at 810 miles, thanks to Finland.. Daniel Morris, lead analyst for aerospace, defence and security at GlobalData, says the addition of the two countries, particularly Finland, to the NATO family would strategically add two more nations into the protection of smaller Baltic states such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, limiting any attempt by Russia to use the Baltic Sea to launch an assault.. “It adds another border which Russia now has to consider if it is to try and replicate its actions in Ukraine with other smaller European nations,” he says, reiterating the enduring position NATO has taken; that it is has no ambition to invade Russia: “It never will, unless it’s provoked”.. Sweden operates in the Baltic and has a considerable military, so joining NATO will again annoy Russia, which will only see this as a hostile action.”. NATO requires member states to invest 2% of GDP in defence, a figure Finland surpasses at 2.2%, spending $6.1bn per year by the end of 2022.. “[Sweden’s reliance on domestic suppliers] has been seen by some analysts as a reason why Sweden has not wanted to join NATO previously,” says Morris.. Turkey, a NATO member since 1952 and located furthest east in the alliance, is less than enthusiastic at the prospect of Finland and Sweden countries joining and has recently threatened to delay the process.. “It has always felt that it is an outcast of the NATO organisation, believing that NATO doesn’t take its security concerns seriously.. Country United KingdomUnited StatesAfghanistanÅland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAmerican SamoaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of. 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Sandwich IslandsSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwan, Province of ChinaTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-lesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited States Minor Outlying. IslandsUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuelaViet NamVirgin Islands, BritishVirgin Islands, U.S.Wallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabwe Download free Buyer's Guide By clicking the Download Free Buyer's Guide button, you accept the terms and conditions and acknowledge that your data will be used as described in the VMS Engage – Buyer’s Guide privacy policy. By downloading this Buyer's Guide, you acknowledge that we may share your information with our white paper partners/sponsors who may contact you directly with information on their products and services.

            Sweden and Finland are set formally to end decades of neutrality and join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in a historic breakthrough for the alliance that deals a blow to Russian President Vladimir Putin.

            Turkey lifts its objections to Sweden, Finland joining NATO Turkey has agreed to lift its opposition to Sweden and Finland joining NATO, a breakthrough in an impasse clouding a leaders’ summit in Madrid amid Europe ’s worst security crisis in decades triggered by the war in Ukraine. Turkey Backs NATO Membership for Sweden, Finland Turkey has agreed to allow Sweden and Finland to join NATO, ending a dispute that slowed an expansion of the alliance So do Sweden, Finland agree with the influx of Turkish migrants?. Turkey lifting objections to Sweden, Finland joining NATO Turkey has agreed to lift its opposition to Sweden and Finland joining NATO, a breakthrough in an impasse clouding a leaders’ summit in Madrid.. (CNN) The last major hurdle to the two nations' entry to the bloc was removed when Turkey dropped its opposition on Tuesday.Expand Spain NATO Summit From left to right background: NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Finland's President Sauli Niinisto, Sweden's Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu, Finnish Foreign Minister Pekka Haavisto, and Sweden's Foreign Minister Ann Linde sign a memorandum in which Turkey agrees to Finland and Sweden's membership of the defense alliance in Madrid, Spain on Tuesday, June 28, 2022.Madrid summit of alliance members to affirm plan to rebuild forces in Europe Police patrol ahead of the NATO summit in Madrid.Email article Jens Stoltenberg, secretary general of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), during a panel session on day two of the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, Switzerland, on Tuesday, May 24, 2022.. (AP Photo/Bernat Armangue) (Bernat Armangue) JILL LAWLESS and JOSEPH WILSON June 28, 2022 at 4:36 pm EDT MADRID — (AP) — Turkey agreed Tuesday to lift its opposition to Sweden and Finland joining NATO, ending an impasse that had clouded a leaders’ summit opening in Madrid amid Europe’s worst security crisis in decades, triggered by the war in Ukraine.Here's all you need to know about why the move happened, what comes next and why it matters.Read MoreWhat are the latest developments?Sweden and Finland both announced their intention to join NATO in May, after Russia's invasion of Ukraine caused a sudden shift in attitudes toward joining the bloc.” He called it “a historic decision.That announcement was welcomed by almost all of NATO's leaders -- but there was one significant obstacle.. Turkey, in turn, agreed “to support at the 2022 Madrid Summit the invitation of Finland and Sweden to become members of NATO.How have leaders reacted?US President Joe Biden praised the breakthrough with Turkey, saying it sent a clear signal to Russia that NATO was united and growing.Sweden and Finland's"decision to move away from neutrality and the tradition of neutrality to join the NATO alliance is going to make us stronger and more secure and NATO stronger," Biden said.. "Why is Russia so opposed to NATO?Putin sees the alliance as a defense against Russia, despite the fact that it spent much of the post-Soviet era focusing on issues like terrorism and peacekeeping.Before Putin invaded Ukraine, he made clear his belief that NATO had edged too close to Russia and should be stripped back to its borders of the 1990s, before some countries that either neighbor Russia or were ex-Soviet states joined the military alliance.Ukraine's desire to join NATO, and its status as a NATO partner -- seen as a step on the way to eventual full membership -- was one of the numerous grievances Putin cited in an attempt to justify the invasion.

            Finnish political scientist Heikki Patomäki analyzes internal dynamics shaping Finland and Sweden’s turn toward NATO.

            Now, NATO has not only gained a new lease on life but also is expected to grow, with Finland and Sweden inching closer to NATO membership.. In the interview that follows, Finnish political scientist Heikki Patomäki provides a critical look into the reasons why Finland and Sweden have opted to join NATO and the potential consequences for Nordic social democracy.. Whereas during the Cold War the Nordic countries achieved a pluralist and non-military security community amongst themselves and promoted solidarity and common good in their external relations, the step of joining NATO is accompanied by the militarization of society and belief in the capacity of the military might prevent war through superior deterrence.. Neoliberalization in turn has gradually changed meanings, mentalities, practices and institutions in Finland, paving the way to the rise of nationalist-authoritarian populism in the 2010s.It is evident that Russia has started a highly counterproductive war, the byproducts of which now include Finnish and Swedish membership in NATO.. A problem is that this membership is in turn a step in the process of escalation of the conflict between Russia and NATO and, so far to a lesser extent, between Russia and the EU.. Why is Russia terrified of Finland in particular joining NATO, and how could it retaliate?. Although in 2000-2001 Putin had discussions about the possibility of Russia joining NATO, what he seemed to have had in mind was the transformation of NATO into something more akin to the idea of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.. Depending on the specific conditions of Finnish membership, membership may mean NATO military installations directly on the western side of Russia and an expansion of territory that would in effect be under U.S. military command in case of a war.. This is even though for example Maria Zakharova, the spokesperson of the Russian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, has talked about “surprising military countermeasures and actions.” Mostly the Putin regime appears to have adopted a line according to which Finnish NATO membership does not matter that much, not least because Finland was already so close to NATO.. Finnish and Swedish membership in NATO … is in turn a step in the process of escalation of the conflict between Russia and NATO.Moreover, any forceful interference — whether taking the form of manufactured migration flows, cyberattacks, or missile strikes — would be very counterproductive.. Do you think that Finland’s decision to join NATO would undermine what is left of the social democratic model?

            Finland has taken the lead, but its famously skeptical neighbor is following.

            Sweden is, in fact, NATO’s luckiest-ever joiner, a country swept into the alliance without having to lobby for membership and without its government even expressing a desire to join.. In mid-April, the Finnish government presented to parliament a report on the pros and cons of NATO membership (it was mostly pros), and Marin traveled to Stockholm for a meeting and press conference with Sweden’s prime minister, Magdalena Andersson.. The Social Democrats have long argued that Sweden can’t join NATO without Finland, in the knowledge that Finland was extremely unlikely to join.. Sweden is, in fact, NATO’s luckiest-ever joiner, a country swept into the alliance without having to lobby for membership and without its government even expressing a desire to join.. In mid-April, the Finnish government presented to parliament a report on the pros and cons of NATO membership (it was mostly pros), and Marin traveled to Stockholm for a meeting and press conference with Sweden’s prime minister, Magdalena Andersson.. To bridge this unbridgeable gap, the Social Democrats have instead argued that Sweden can’t join NATO without Finland, in the knowledge that Finland was extremely unlikely to join.. “The difference between Sweden and Finland is that Finland has long had what the Finns call their NATO option, which their governments have consistently communicated to the public, to Russia, to NATO,” said Pal Jonson, the chairman of the Swedish parliament’s defense committee and a member of the center-right Moderate Party.. The most recent one, from April 25, showed 47 percent of Swedes supporting a NATO membership bid, with 21 percent opposed—and a remarkable 59 percent now support joining if Finland joins too.. “There’s a bureaucratic process ahead, which could see Finland and Sweden join the alliance after the war that has prompted their apparent reversal on NATO membership ends,” Lepik said.

            Even if the two Nordic countries don’t join NATO, they have signaled a new era in relations with Moscow.

            Cold War Finland, meanwhile, couldn’t have entertained Swedish-style cooperation with the United States even if it had wanted to: The Soviet Union kept its neighbor, which it had forced to sign a so-called friendship treaty after World War II, under close scrutiny.. The policy was so successful that a 2015 Gallup poll showed Finns were more willing than people anywhere else in Europe to defend their country: 74 percent of Finns said they’d be willing to defend their country with arms.. Of course, citizens of a well-governed country that’s not part of a defense alliance are likely to feel more loyal to their country’s defense than those who are used to relying on the U.S. military.. But considering the stakes involved in defending a country of 5.6 million people against a direct neighbor of 146 million people, having three quarters of the population willing to pitch in shows remarkable civic commitment.. “The Russians are making us talk about NATO,” said René Nyberg, a former Finnish ambassador to Moscow and co-author of a 2016 government-commissioned report about Finnish NATO membership.. Finland and especially Sweden have spent many post-Cold War years agonizing over NATO membership, and the two Finnish leaders’ words are bound to influence Sweden too.. “Sweden and Finland have extremely close military cooperation and even joint defense planning,” Jonson pointed out.. Indeed, because the two countries would in reality only join the alliance together, sentiments in both countries matter greatly.. In the end, Finland and Sweden may decide not to apply for NATO membership.. But the key point made by Niinisto and Marin is it’s Finland’s choice, just as it’s Sweden’s.

            MARY REICHARD, HOST: Next time The THE WORLD and everything in it, adding two new members to the world’s largest defense alliance.

            MARY REICHARD, HOST: Next time TheTHE WORLD and everything in it, adding two new members to the world’s largest defense alliance.. It is the world’s most powerful military alliance, with 30 member countries, including the United States, Canada, France and the United Kingdom.. MYRNA BROWN, HOST: Article 5 of its founding document says that an “armed attack against one or more of them shall be considered an attack against all of them.” And that security, together with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, is the reason why Sweden and Finland now want to exchange generations of neutrality for membership in NATO.. And we say that if that country is attacked, that we will consider it an attack on our own country.. REICHARD: We mentioned that the US Senate ratified the membership of Finland and Sweden, but this process is, again, far from over.. And Turkey has of course tried to extract a number of concessions as a price to get the thumbs up for Finland and Sweden joining the alliance.. I would say that many times in the past, Erdogan, who leads Turkey, has been someone who is very problematic – who has not acted as a NATO ally.. So a NATO member — acquiring an air defense system from the leading threat to the alliance — that’s an ally, not acting like an ally.. REICHARD: There is a good chance that Russia’s invasion of Ukraine would never have happened if Ukraine had been a NATO member.. The reason he hates NATO expansion is because he knows that once a country becomes a member of the alliance, he can no longer bully, coerce, invade and occupy them.. Well, I have 73 years of proof that Moscow never invaded a member of NATO.

            Russia’s President Vladimir Putin says Russia is not bothered if Sweden and Finland join NATO but warns they will respond in kind to any “threats.”

            Putin added, however, that the NATO expansion would bring "tensions.". More background : On its Telegram channel, the Russian Defense Ministry earlier said Russian "Aerospace Forces launched a strike with high-precision air-based weapons on hangars with weapons and ammunition received from the United States and European countries," hitting a plant of "road machines.". Russian forces attempting to storm Lysychansk are maintaining shelling of the eastern Ukrainian city where some 15,000 people remain, Serhiy Hayday, the head of the Luhansk region military administration, said on Wednesday.. "No communication with Moscow": The US did not convey to Russia its plans to bolster its force posture in Europe ahead of time.. NATO formalized its invitation to Sweden and Finland to join its alliance Wednesday, a historic expansion of the defense bloc that directly undercuts Russian President Vladimir Putin's aims as his war in Ukraine grinds ahead.. Indonesian President Joko Widodo and Ukraine's President Volodymyr Zelensky arrive for a meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine, on June 29.. “Ukraine’s participation will depend on the security situation in Ukraine and who else might be attending,” Zelensky said at the joint press briefing to mark Widodo’s first visit to Ukraine.. The UN documented 10,000 civilian casualties since the conflict began on Feb. 24, “among them, 4,731 people were killed,” Matilda Bogner, head of Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine, told journalists in Kyiv as she presented the report’s findings.

            What would their membership mean to the United States and its allies?

            MYRNA BROWN, HOST: Article 5 of its founding document. states that an “armed attack against one or more of them shall be. considered an attack against them all.”And that security, along with. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, is why Sweden and Finland now wish to. trade generations of neutrality for membership in NATO.. REICHARD: Joining us now is Bradley Bowman.. Why do we care. that Finland and Sweden are likely joining NATO?. BOWMAN: I think what's at stake here is nothing less than. war and peace in Europe, which obviously impacts core American economic. and national security interests.. NATO has 30. members, including the United States.. Greece and Turkey in 1952.. And when members are added, or when we're considering. whether a member should be added, what Americans are getting are some. combination of assets and obligations.. These. are nations with significant militaries with particular niche. capabilities that in my view, on balance, will increase deterrence of. additional provocation aggression from Vladimir Putin.. REICHARD: We mentioned that the US Senate ratified Finland. and Sweden’s membership, but this process is, again, a long way from. being over.. Let me list them quickly:. it's Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, and. Turkey.. And Turkey, of. course, has tried to elicit a number of concessions as a price of. getting their thumbs up for the accession of Finland and Sweden to the. alliance.. I would say that many times in the past, Erdogan who leads. Turkey has been someone that's highly problematic—who has not been. acting like a NATO ally.. If I. had to guess I would say in the end, they will support adding the two. countries to the alliance after getting all the possible concessions. they can that they can get.. Well, I got 73. years of evidence of Moscow never invading a member of NATO.

            Russia's annexation of Crimea has prompted non-aligned Sweden and Finland to weigh defense options such as beefing up partnership with NATO or formally joining the alliance. Analysts say it's up to Russia what's next.

            The Crimean crisis has rekindled discussions in Sweden and Finland of whether to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which would protect the two countries in Europe's north from potential Russian aggression.. This comes after Sweden's Deputy Prime Minister Jan Björklund had publicly called for a "doctrinal shift" in the country's defence policy, reportedly saying he wanted Sweden to "set the wheels in motion" to join NATO.. "The mere fact that you have discussions about Sweden and Finland joining NATO is a clear sign that - in the big scheme of things - Putin's behavior is backfiring," Charles Kupchan, Senior Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) and a professor of International Affairs at Georgetown University, told DW.. Last year, Russian fighters staged a mock attack on Sweden; at the time, NATO's Baltic air patrol responded while Sweden did not react.. If Sweden and Finland were to join NATO, Zandee doesn't expect Russia to retaliate.. But since Finland and Sweden were never one of the Soviet Union's satellite states, he added, joining NATO "would not be as provocative as when the Baltics joined or as provocative as it would be were NATO to restart the process of Georgian and Ukrainian membership.". "My guess is that if this crisis [in Crimea] passes without further Russian military action in Ukraine, these discussions about the possibility of Finland and Sweden joining NATO will probably recede."

            Videos

            1. Finland and Sweden: Debate on NATO membership | DW News
            (DW News)
            2. Ukraine War: The impact of Finland and Sweden joining NATO
            (Sky News)
            3. Finland and Sweden to be invited to join NATO after Turkey lifts objections | 9 News Australia
            (9 News Australia)
            4. Finland And Sweden May Join NATO - What About Ukraine? | Ayman
            (MSNBC)
            5. Why do Finland and Sweden want to join Nato?
            (Guardian News)
            6. Finland and Sweden to join Nato 'as quickly as possible'
            (Guardian News)

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